History : Titus Flavius Vespasianus, known in English as Vespasian (17 November 9 - 23 June 79 ), was the ninth Roman Emperor, who reigned from 69 until his death in 79. Vespasian was the founder of the short-lived Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 and 96. He was succeeded by his sons Titus (79-81) and Domitian (81-96).
Vespasian was descended from a family of equestrians which rose into the senatorial rank under the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Although he attained the standard succession of public offices, holding the consulship in 51, Vespasian became more reputed as a successful military commander, participating in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and subjugating the Judaea province during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian was preparing to besiege the city of Jerusalem during the latter campaign, emperor Nero committed suicide, plunging the Roman Empire into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in mid 69. In response, the armies in Egypt and Judaea themselves declared Vespasian emperor on July 1. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, the governor of Syria, who led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian himself gained control over Egypt. On 20 December, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day, Vespasian was declared emperor by the Roman Senate.
Little factual information survives about Vespasian's government during the ten years he was emperor. His reign is best known for financial reforms following the demise of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the successful campaign against Judaea, and several ambitious construction projects such as the Colosseum. Upon his death on 23 June 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus.